Asian Ginseng  has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. This slow-growing, short plant with fleshy roots can be classified three ways, depending on how long it is grown: fresh, white or red. Fresh ginseng is harvested before 4 years, while white ginseng is harvested between 4–6 years and red ginseng is harvested after 6 or more years. There are many types of this herb, but the most popular are American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng).

American and Asian Ginseng vary in their concentration of active compounds and effects on the body. It is believed that American ginseng works as a relaxing agent, whereas the Asian variety has an invigorating effect.
Ginseng contains two significant compounds: ginsenosides and gintonin. These compounds complement one another to provide health benefits.

Increases Testosterone and Fertility 
traditional Chinese medical practice, ginseng acts as an aphrodisiac. It is used to treat sexual dysfunction and it enhances sexual behavior. In men, ginseng boosts the quality of sperms, as well as, sperm count. Such an action is attributed to the presence of ginsenosides in ginseng.

Furthermore, studies have observed that ginseng helps in the treatment of erectile dysfunction when consumed thrice a day for 2 to 3 months.
Ginseng promotes the production and release of nitric oxide which helps the muscles to relax. This allows the blood to enter the erectile bodies, thus causing erection.

Besides this, treatment with ginseng increases the release of testosterone (male sex hormone).

Prolonged exposure to environmental toxins can cause a decline in the fertility levels.

Increased energy levels and reduced fatigue
Various animal studies have linked some components in ginseng, like polysaccharides and oligopeptides, with lower oxidative stress and higher energy production in cells, which could help fight fatigue.
One four-week study explored the effects of giving 1 or 2 grams of Panax ginseng or a placebo to 90 people with chronic fatigue.

Those given Panax ginseng experienced less physical and mental fatigue, as well as reductions in oxidative stress, than those taking the placebo.
Another study gave 364 cancer survivors experiencing fatigue 2,000 mg of American ginseng or a placebo. After eight weeks, those in the ginseng group had significantly lower fatigue levels than those in the placebo group.

Furthermore, a review of over 155 studies suggested that ginseng supplements may not only help reduce fatigue but also enhance physical activity.

Improve Erectile Dysfunction
Research has shown that ginseng may be a useful alternative for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men.

It seems that compounds in it may protect against oxidative stress in blood vessels and tissues in the penis and help restore normal function.

Additionally, studies have shown that ginseng may promote the production of nitric oxide, a compound that improves muscle relaxation in the penis and increases blood circulation.

One study found that men treated with Korean red ginseng had a 60% improvement in ED symptoms, compared to 30% improvement produced by a medication used to treat ED.

Moreover, another study showed that 86 men with ED had significant improvements in erectile function and overall satisfaction after taking 1,000 mg of aged ginseng extract for 8 weeks.

Boost the Immune System
One study followed 39 people who were recovering from surgery for stomach cancer, treating them with 5,400 mg of ginseng daily for two years.
Interestingly, these people had significant improvements in immune functions and a lower recurrence of symptoms.
Another study examined the effect of red ginseng extract on immune system markers in people with advanced stomach cancer undergoing post-surgery chemotherapy.

After three months, those taking red ginseng extract had better immune system markers than those in the control or placebo group.

Furthermore, a study suggested that people who take ginseng could have up to a 35% higher chance of living disease-free for five years after curative surgery and up to a 38% higher survival rate compared to those not taking it.

Improves cognitive function and mental health
could help improve brain functions like memory, behavior and mood. Some test-tube and animal studies show that components in ginseng, like ginsenosides and compound K, could protect the brain against damage caused by free radicals.

One study followed 30 healthy people who consumed 200 mg of Panax ginseng daily for four weeks. At the end of the study, they showed improvement in mental health, social functioning and mood.

Another study examined how single doses of either 200 or 400 mg of Panax ginseng affected mental performance, mental fatigue and blood sugar levels in 30 healthy adults before and after a 10-minute mental test.

The 200-mg dose, as opposed to the 400-mg dose, was more effective at improving mental performance and fatigue during the test. It is possible that ginseng assisted the uptake of blood sugar by cells, which could have enhanced performance and reduced mental fatigue.

A third study found that taking 400 mg of Panax ginseng daily for eight days improved calmness and math skills. What’s more, other studies found positive effects on brain function and behavior in people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Reduces Colestrol 
Research found that administration of 6 grams of ginseng per day for 8 weeks lowered the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) or bad cholesterol. Besides this, the level of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) or good cholesterol increased which is heart-protective.
Ginseng increases the activity of superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant that reduces the synthesis of cholesterol. Malondialdehyde, is a harmful compound that increases LDL cholesterol level and oxidative stress. It was found that ginseng reduces the level of malondialdehyde and further prevents rise in LDL cholesterol level.

Reduces blood sugar
ginseng have been shown to improve pancreatic cell function, boost insulin production and enhance the uptake of blood sugar in tissues.
Moreover, studies show that Ginseng extracts help by providing antioxidant protection that reduce free radicals in the cells of those with diabetes.
One study assessed the effects of 6 grams of Korean red ginseng, along with the usual anti-diabetic medication or diet, in 19 people with type 2 diabetes.
Interestingly, they were able to maintain good blood sugar control throughout the 12-week study. They also had an 11% decrease in blood sugar levels, a 38% decrease in fasting insulin and a 33% increase in insulin sensitivity.
Another study showed that Ginseng helped improve blood sugar levels in 10 healthy people after they performed a sugary drink test.
In fact, a study demonstrated that taking 2.7 grams of fermented red ginseng daily was effective at lowering blood sugar and increasing insulin levels after a test meal, compared to a placebo.

Potent Antioxidant reduces inflammation and stress
Ginseng has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some test-tube studies have shown that ginseng extracts and ginsenoside compounds could inhibit inflammation and increase antioxidant capacity in cells.
For example, one test-tube study found that Korean red ginseng extract reduced inflammation and improved antioxidant activity is skin cells from people with eczema.

The results are promising in humans, as well.

One study investigated the effects of having 18 young male athletes take 2 grams of Korean red ginseng extract three times per day for seven days.

The men then had levels of certain inflammatory markers tested after performing an exercise test. These levels were significantly lower than in the placebo group, lasting for up to 72 hours after testing.

Researchers concluded that red ginseng may help reduce oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.